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THE BASIC PRINCIPLE OF CNC MILLING MACHINE
ACG Cooler International Limited | Updated: May 28, 2018

The numerical control technology is the technology that uses the digital information to control the mechanical movement and the working process. It is a new type of modern industrial production, which has developed very fast and high technology. The numerical control equipment is the mechanical and electrical integration product which is formed by the new technology represented by numerical control technology to the traditional manufacturing industry and the emerging manufacturing industry, that is, the so-called digital equipment. The fields covered by the technology range are also: mechanical manufacturing technology; microelectronic technology; information processing and transmission technology; automatic control technology; server. Service driving technology, inspection and monitoring technology, sensing technology, software technology and so on. CNC milling machine technology and equipment is the development of new high-tech industries and sophisticated industries, is the most basic technology and equipment. It has outstanding advantages in improving productivity, reducing cost, ensuring the quality of processing and improving the labor intensity of workers, especially in adapting to the rapid updating and replacement of mechanical products, small batch and multi variety production, all kinds of numerical control equipment are key keys to realize advanced manufacturing technology.

CNC milling machine is numerically controlled machine tool, or machine tool equipped with CNC system. CNC milling machine is a machine tool with program control system. The system can process programs that are specified by code or other symbol encoding instructions.

CNC milling machine is the earliest development of a CNC machine tool, with spindle located in the vertical direction of the majority of vertical milling machine. The spindle of the milling machine only rotates. The worktable drives the workpiece to work vertically, horizontally, vertically, in three directions. It's called the lifting table milling machine. In order to improve the stiffness, the main spindle is used to rotate the main motion and the vertical feed movement with the main axle box lifting platform, and the worktable only does not lift type milling machine with 2 directions in longitudinal and horizontal direction. Vertical CNC milling machine processing plane cam parts, only need the worktable along the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the coordinate movement, that is, at the same time to the plane surface of a certain point of the control of the machining trajectory, called the two coordinate linkage control (2 axis linkage). When the cone parts are processed, the circular machining is completed by the two coordinate coordinate motion of the worktable. After finishing a circle, a height is raised along the height direction of the cone platform, then the diameter of the circle (X, Y's synthetic value) is changed to another circle until the whole cone is processed, which is called the two axis and half control. If a spiral groove curve is machined on a cone, the 3 coordinate feed must be coordinated every moment, that is, to reach a point in space at the same time, which is called the three coordinate linkage control, that is, the linkage of the three axis. Complex space surfaces can be machined by three axis linkage. According to the coordinate number of machine numerical control system, the 3 axis CNC vertical milling machine is still the majority. Generally, 3 coordinate machining can be carried out, but some machine tools can only process two coordinates in 3 coordinates. In addition, there are also 4 axis and 5 axis CNC vertical milling machines that can rotate around one or two axes in X, Y and Z axes. In general, the more coordinates of machine tools are controlled, and the more coordinate axes that require linkage, the more the machine tools function, the processing range and the selected processing objects. But the following is that the structure of the machine tool is more complex, the demand for NC system is higher, the programming is more difficult, and the price of the equipment is higher. Numerical control vertical milling machine can add numerical control turntable, use automatic switch table and increase mould device to expand the function of CNC vertical milling machine, processing range and processing object, and further improve production efficiency.  CNC unit is the core of CNC machine tool. CNC unit consists of three parts: input, processing and output of information. The CNC unit receives digital information. After decoding, interpolating and logical processing of the control software and logic circuit of the numerical control device, the instruction information is output to the servo system, and the servo system drives the execution parts for feed movement.


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